课程描述

Theoretical Teaching

Introduction

    High-standard, internationalized education of overseas students serves as not only the general characteristic of world first-class universities, but also an important symbol of internationalized higher education of developed countries. As a national key construction of the "211 Project" University, our school took the lead in building up the whole-process English education mode and quality guarantee system, which now enjoys a high reputation both at home and abroad, and then marches into the market of international medical education. Malignant tumor, which is frequently-occurring disease, seriously threatens people’s health. Today all countries are strengthening their ability on prevention and treatment research, which makes oncology develop rapidly into an emerging independent subject. Among our traditional medical courses there’s no special and systematic oncological course and the course arrangements about oncology are few. Knowledge on each type of tumor is taught in its corresponding subject, which leads to decentralization of content, weak relation with clinic medicine and lack of systematicness and unity. Therefore the present medical education system can’t meet the needs of the development of modern medical science. In order to adapt to the demand for the international medical talents, based on International standards for undergraduate medical education and The global minimum essential requirements in medical education, we’ve made a systematic reform on relating courses and finished the integrative recombination of the knowledge, thus created a distinct characteristic of courses:
    1. The integration of cross-subject courses
    (1)The integration of oncology and epidemiology: With the huge change of society, economy, culture, population and sustainable development of the world, the previous disease-oriented medical belief has been gradually overthrown and replaced by prevention-oriented. Epidemiology serves as an important part of prevention medicine, which focuses on the study of distribution of diseases and health among people and its influential factors, and then works on how to prevent diseases and improve health. As a significant part of epidemiology, the study of tumor focuses on the regularity of occurrence, development and distribution of tumor and tries to figure out why and how tumor is spreading among people. Developing strategy and measures to prevent, control and erase malignant tumor has been the main content of oncology.
    (2)The integration of oncology and molecular biology: Twenty-first Century has been known as “biological century”. Life science has become the forefront of science. As the leading subject of life science, molecular biology is an emerging inter-disciplinary subject to study life from the molecular level, which takes the structure of nucleic acid and protein and their role in the genetic information and cell signaling as the object of the research. Now it develops fastest in current life science and plays an important role in cross-disciplinary communication with other subjects. As the life science comes into the post genome era, oncology also steps into a brand-new stage, from multi-stages of tumor to prevention of tumor, from tumor genetic susceptibility to research on early detection. Therefore the rapid advancement of molecular biology of tumor will considerably facilitate the development of Clinical oncology and Preventive Clinical Oncology.
    (3)The integration of oncology and pathology: Pathology is a basic medical course, which studies the cause and mechanism of human disease, progression, metabolism, morphological structure and prognosis during the course of the disease. Pathology has been thought as a bridge between the basic medicine and clinical medicine. This course organically integrates of oncology and pathology. In the course, oncological knowledge contains the pathological knowledge. Therefore, this course not only can consolidate the pathological knowledge, but also can relate to the specific disease, which make the students in-depth understanding of oncological knowledge.
    (4)The integration of oncology and diagnostic imageology: Diagnostic imageology is a very important branch of modern medicine, which can display the internal structure in the body of patients through special means and reveal the qualitative and quantitative analysis of lesions. Modern imageology makes the clinical staging of tumor to be more precise, and it has become one of the main basis of clinical therapy of tumor. For example, double contrast radiography of gastrointestinal tract improves the diagnostic accuracy of early cancer significantly; The application of CT and MRI in gastrointestinal carcinoma provides more imaging information for the tumor staging and assessment; What’s more, the application of high-resolution MRI in the preoperative rectal carcinoma enhances the accuracy of T staging to 90%, which improves the pertinence of treatment. Therefore, the diagnostic imageology is an important part of oncology, and it is an indispensable content of teaching.
    2.Classic treatment and Cutting-edge treatment in oncology
    With the full integration of course content, Oncology now emphasizes more on the discipline features and advantages. Based on the knowledge of medical-surgical treatment of tumor, this course introduces radiotherapy, biotherapy and integrated therapy of traditional and western medicine. Also, by means of different teaching method like surgery video, case discussion and problem-based learning, the students of this course could obtain a preliminary understanding of classic as well as cutting-edge treatment in oncology.
    (1)Surgical Oncology: Surgical treatment of tumors is one of the oldest, the most effective and the most common used clinical treatment, also this therapeutic efficacy has been clinically recognized. In the past two decades, with the extensive application of microsurgical techniques, minimally invasive surgical techniques as well as the improvement of anesthesia and antimicrobial drugs, the tumor surgery has undergone a rapid development. As a characteristic discipline of our school, oncology has maintained a high reputation both at home and abroad.
    Principal investigator and academician Hao Xishan, the discoverer of functional jejunal interposition on behalf of stomach surgery, who overcame the severe postoperative complications related to the total gastrectomy, which has been used for decades worldwidely,has made great breakthrough in the study of gastrointestinal surgical procedures and awarded the “ National Science and Technology Progress Award” in 2011.
    (2)Medical Oncology: as an important means of comprehensive cancer treatment, it still face many problems such as therapy standardization, subject definition, the scope of study and physician training, the theoretical system and therapeutic levels of medical treatment also need to be optimized and improved.
    Over the past decade, due to clinical application of several anticancer drugs based on novel mechanism ,most importantly taxanes and camptothecin derivative -inhibitors of tubulin depolymerization and topoisomerase I respectively, and also attributed to the discovery of the multidrug resistance gene and the successful clinical application of biological and gene therapy , the medical treatment of tumor is nowadays more variable and becomes the most active area of research.
    (3)Radiation Oncology:radiotherapy is one of three major cancer therapy method and as the continued improvement in technique and equipments, radiotherapy has been greatly developed, especially in the aspect of radiation physics, radiation biology and clinical radiotherapy.
    In radiation oncology, sealed radioactive sources are directly put into the tissue or body's natural cavity to irradiate which has many advantages such as accurate irradiation, radioactive sources miniaturization, staff protection, etc.
    Radiotherapy disciplines of Tianjin Medical University Cancer Hospital was founded by professor Jin Xianzhai, the Late founder of China's oncogy in 1950s and is one of the earliest established and larger radiotherapy department. After unremitting efforts of generations in the past half a century, we has now developed into a institution covering scientific research, teaching and clinical treatment and the country's well-known tumor radiotherapy base.
    (4)Cancer Biotherapy: Biological therapy and gene therapy has broad application prospects, especially as the successful construction of several efficient drug delivery vector with tissue cells selective and the discoveries of some novel and more potent target gene, making gene therapy possibly become the fourth common cancer treatment in the 21st century.
    Biotherapy department of Tianjin Medical University Cancer Hospital Keeps up with the world frontier area, mainly focus on the clinical comprehensive treatment of cancer, we highlight the characteristic biotherapy and joint the chemotherapy and radiotherapy together ,and make continued innovation in adoptive immune cell therapy, stem cell treatment (autologous and allogeneic), tumor DC vaccine therapy, gene therapy, we also carried out a lot of work in the treatment of lung cancer, kidney cancer, malignant melanoma, ovarian cancer and other solid tumors and has accumulated rich clinical experience and gradually formed a treatment strategy with our own style.
    (5)Integrated therapy of traditional and western medicine: recent years, China has got many achievements in tumor therapy with integrated medicine. Actually, the therapy with integrated medicine is more efficient then medicine separated used. Chinese tradition medicine plays an important role in the postoperative rehabilitation of cancer patients, reducing the toxic side effects during radiotherapy and chemotherapy as well as enhancing the efficacy.
    Department of Integrated Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine of Tianjin Medical University Cancer Hospital uses therapy module on an equal basis of traditional and western medicines,joints the chemotherapy and Chinese dialectical therapy and featured in anti-tumor recurrence and metastasis, reversal of tumor resistance, comprehensive treatment of primary liver cancer and tumor palliative care using traditional medicine. Also, we reduce the recurrence and metastasis in patients with early cancer and survival with tumor of advanced cancer patients as well as improve the quality of life in patients with more effective and win widely praised by patients.

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